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REPORT 



'Gentlemen: Your School Committee, in making 
their annual Keport, are required to make a detailed 
statement of the condition of the several schools in town. 
Before proceeding to this duty, however, it may be 
proper to mention a change which has occurred in 
the Committee during the year. Hev. Robert Carver, 
who was elected to the office at the commencement 
of the year, after having served for about half the 
term, removed from the town; and the vacancy occa- 
sioned by his resignation was filled, according to the 
provisions of law, by the election of Rev. Wm. Read. 

DETAILED REPORT. 

DISTRICT NO. 1. 

Number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 15 
are 43. Amount of money appropriated to the district— $165,93. 
Prudential Committee — Braddock Field. 

Summer Term. Teacher — Miss Elizabeth H. God- 
frey, of Norton. Number of scholars attending school 
45; Average attendance 38; Length of school 2 1-2 
months; Amount of pay received by the teacher, in- 
cluding board, $45. 

This has been a very pleasant and profitable term 
of school. Miss Godfrey possesses qualifications for 
teaching which can hardly fail of placing her in the 
front rank of her profession. In the management of 
the school, she evinced superior skill and discretion, 
and a happy faculty of keeping all pleasantly and 
profitably employed during study hours. This is an 
important consideration, and one that is too much over- 
looked by those who aspire to become teachers. Good 
order prevailed during the school; and it was main- 



tallied in so quiet and happy a manner, that each 
scholar seemed desirous of contributing his share of 
self-government, so necessary for its accomplishment. 

It is a matter of regret that the term could not 
have been continued, at least, another month. 

Winter Term. Teacher — W. M. Copeland. Number 
of scholars 52 ; Average attendance 39§-J; Length of 
school 3 months; Amount of pay received by teach- 
er, including board $107.35. 

The average attendance was seriously decreased by 
sickness which prevailed extensively among the schol- 
ars, towards the close of the term. This necessarily 
abridged the usefulness of the school. But the other 
members of the Committee deem it but just to say 
that, the progress and appearance of the school were 
good, sustaining the high reputation which Mr. Cope- 
land has achieved, as a teacher, by years of successful 
experience. 

A new school house, or a thorough remodeling of 
the old one, we think, is much needed in this district. 

DISTRICT NO. 2. 

Number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 15 
are 34. Amount of mone} r appropriated to the district. $142.25. 
Prudential Committee — Lorenzo Hall. 

Summer Term. Teacher — Miss Sophia A. Townsend, 
of Berkley. Whole number of scholars 36; Average 
attendance 30; Length of school 3 months; Amount 
received by teacher as pay, including board, $60. 

Miss Townsend has had considerable experience in 
teaching, and we believe also has had the reputation" 
of being tolerably successful; and we wish not to de- 
tract from the well deserved reputation of any"bne 
who engages in the arduous business of teaching. 
But in speaking of this school we must say that we 
Avere somewhat disappointed in our expectations. 
The progress of the school was retarded by inefficien- 
cy of discipline. There seemed to be a want of studi- 
ousness, and consequently of promptness and anima- 



tion, on the part of the scholars, which an energetic 
and skilful teacher can dojnuch to obviate. 

We are glad, however, to be able to say that the 
condition of the school, both as regards order and stu- 
dy, was considerably improved during the latter part 
of the term; and, at the closing examination, it was 
manifest that some progress had been made in all the 
branches pursued. Very commendable improvement 
was manifested by some of the older scholars, particu- 
larly in Arithmetic. 

Winter Term. Teachers — Alfred M. Williams, of 
Taunton, and Miss Louisa C. Dean, of Easton. Whole 
number of scholars in Mr. Williams' school 37; Aver- 
age attendance 30-i^-; Length of school 1 month; 
Amount of pay received by Mr. Williams $28. Num- 
ber of scholars in Miss Dean's school 27; Average at- 
tendance 23 -J f; Length of school \\ months; Amount 
of pay received by Miss Dean $48.75. Average at- 
tendance of both schools 26; Length of schools by 
both teachers 2-J months ; Amount received as pay, 
by both teachers, including board $76.75. 

Mr Williams commenced the term, but failing in 
the general management and instruction of the school, 
it was thought that a just regard to the interests of 
the district, required him to relinquish a task for 
which he seemed unsuited. The school was therefore 
interrupted for three weeks; when the services of 
Miss Dean were secured. Under her admirable sys- 
tem of instruction and government, new life was im- 
parted to the school, and the remainder of the term 
was highly satisfactory. The faithfulness and skill of 
Miss Dean are deserving of the highest praise; and 
they resulted in success beyond what your Committee 
had ventured to expect. 

DISTRICT NO. 3. 

Number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 15 
are 51. Amount of money appropriated to the district $186.98. 
Prudential Committee — S. H. Bkittian. 

Summer Term. Teacher — Miss Sarah H. Phillies, of 



6 

Maine. Whole number of scholars 43; Average at- 
tendance 36; Length of school 3J months. Amount 
recived by teacher as pay, including board $80.50. 

Miss Phillips deserves much praise for her fidelity 
to the interests of those intrusted to her care. Much 
progress was made in the right direction during this 
term. The teacher was firm and judicious in her gov- 
ernment, affable and winning in her manners, and won 
the love of her pupils. May we not hope that her 
services may be secured to the school again ? 

Winter Term. Teacher — Miss Elizabeth E. Leon- 
ard, of Norton. Whole number of scholars 44; Aver- 
age attendance 35; Length of school 4 months; 
Amount received by teacher as pay, including board 
$96.00. 

The interest which had been awakened by Miss 
Phillips during the summer term, was sustained in the 
winter by Miss Leonard, who, during the summer, in 
district No. 8, had shown herself a competent and 
faithful teacher. The district has been fortunate in 
its selection of teachers, and the school is now in a 
very prosperous condition. It is a matter of regret 
that there are some parents in this district who seem 
to undervalue the privileges which are offered in the 
district school, without money, to all the children with- 
in its limits ; and who allow their children to frequent 
the shops, or remain in idleness at home, when they 
should be at school. 

DISTRICT NO. 4. 

Number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 15 
are 29. Amount of money appropriated to the district $129.10. 
Prudential Committee — Adnah Harlow. 

Summer Term. Teacher — Mrs. Caroline Andrews. 
Whole number of scholars 26; Average attendance 
22^; Length of school 2| months; Amount received 
by teacher as pay, including board $44.00. 

Mrs. Andrews conducted the school to the satisfac- 
tion of your Committee, and it is believed her services 
were highly acceptable to the district generally. The 



progress of the scholars, and the appearance of the 
school, were certainly such as not to admit of com- 
plaint. 

Winter Term. Teacher — Samuel Jones. Whole 
number of scholars 27; Average attendance 23; 
Length of school 2 months 16^ days; Amount receiv- 
ed by teacher as pay, including board $75.15. 

Mr. Jones has been long known as a teacher in this 
town, and the other members of your Committee do 
not think it necessary to multiply words in his praise. 
The school was a successful one. Commendable inter- 
est was manifested by the scholars in their studies, 
and their labors were rewarded with no small degree 
of improvement. 

DISTRICT NO. 5. 

The number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 15 
are 52. Amount of money appropriated to the district $189.61. 
Prudential Committee — Elisha E. Freeman. 

Summer Term. Teacher — Miss Harriet A. Gooding. 
The whole number of scholars 51; Average atten- 
dance 37^o? Length of school 3 months; Amount re- 
ceived by teacher as pay, including board $66.00. 

The school made some advancement during the 
term, but did not evince sufficient interest and ener- 
gy. The teacher manifested a disposition to do what 
she could for the success of the school ; but seemed to 
lack, to some extent, the qualities necessary to give 
a teacher all that promptness and efficiency so desira- 
ble at the head of a district school. But perhaps a 
still greater obstacle to success existed in a want of 
co-operation with the teacher on the part of some of 
the parents. 

Winter Term. Teacher — Alvin W. Pierce. Num- 
ber of scholars 71; Average attendance 59a ; Length 
of school 2f months; Amount received by teacher as 
pay, including board $91.00. 

Mr. Pierce continued to maintain his usual success 
in teaching, and his scholars showed a pleasing inter- 



\ 



8 

est in their studies. Your Committee were particu- 
larly gratified with the attainments of several pupils 
in this school. 

DISTRICT NO. G. 

Number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 15 
are 37. Amount of money appropriated to the district $150.14. 
Prudential Committee — Melvin Leonard. 

Summer Term. Teacher — Miss Lucia A. Drake, of 
Micldleborough. Whole number of scholars 41; Av- 
erage attendance 31; Length of school 3 months; 
Amount received by teacher as pay, including board 
§60.00. 

Miss Drake had a very quiet and orderly school, 
and gave general satisfaction. 

There seems to have been great irregularity of at- 
tendance during the term: the Eegister showing an 
average absence of one fourth of the whole number. 
The Committee are not aware of any sufficient cause 
for so serious a hindrance to the prosperity of the 
school. 

Winter Term. Teacher — Charles D. Lincoln. 

Whole number of scholars 42 ; Average attendance 
32 : Length of school 2^\ months ; Amount received 
by the teacher as pay, including board, $84.52. 

Mr Lincoln had taught in this district previous to 
this term. His reputation as a good teacher, is well 
established, and in this school he was successful. The 
scholars showed commendable effort in the pursuit of 
their studies ; and their improvement was considera- 
ble ; though it was doubtless less than it would have 
been, had not sickness renderd the attendance very 



irregular. 



DISTRICT NO. 7. 



Whole number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 
15 are 55. Amount of money appropriated to the district $197.51. 
Prudential Committee — C. G. Washburn. 

Summer Term. Teacher — Miss Dordana Macomber 






9 

of Taunton. Whole number of scholars 72 ; Average 
attendance 54; Length of school 3 J months; Amount 
received by teacher as pay, including board $89.37. 

The Winter Term was also taught by Miss Macom- 
ber. Whole number of scholars 71 : Average atten- 
dance 52 ; Length of school 3 months; Amount re- 
ceived by teacher as pay, including board $94.50. 

The Winter term of this school was affected injuri- 
ously, like several others in the town, by irregularity 
of attendance, resulting from sickness among the pu- 
pils. It is also feared that the influence of a few of 
the larger scholars, was not so salutary as it should 
have been. At best, the school was large, and unaid- 
ed by any assistant, the teacher's task was laborious. 
The manner in which Miss Macomber acquitted her- 
self, considering the circumstances under which she 
was placed, was in the highest degree creditable. 
With ceaseless industry, untiring patience, and supe- 
rior skill, she labored, throughout both terms ; exciting 
the admiration of all interested, who are capable of 
appreciating the efforts of a, first rale teacher. 

Your committee feel it their duty to call attention 
to the unsuitableness of the present school house, 
for the wants of the district. Without dwelling on 
its unfitness, we would suggest that a new house is 
urgently needed ; and, when built, it should be provided 
with a commodious recitation room, and a liberal sup 
ply of black-boards. With the present convenien 
cies — or rather inconvemencies — half the money and 
energy laid out on the school, annually, is wasted. 



DISTRICT NO. 8. 

Whole number of persons in the district between the ages of 5 and 
15 are 20. Amount of money appropriated to the district $105.42. 
Prudential Committee — James S. Leach. 

Summer Term* Teacher — Miss Elizabeth E. Leon- 
ard, of Norton. Whole number of scholars 18; Aver 
age attendance 15 T ^ ; Length of school 2 months- 



10 

Amount received by teacher as pay, including board 
$28.00. 

Miss Leonard made her first attempt at teaching 
during this term, and we think that justice requires 
us to say that she made a good beginning. It cannot 
be expected that, in so short a time, very much can 
be accomplished either in acquiring or imparting 
knowledge. 

Winter Term. Teacher — Miss Maria B. Leonard, of 
Norton. Whole number of scholars 25 ; Average at- 
tendance 22 ; Length of school 2| months; Amount 
recived by teacher as pay, including board $57.75. 

Miss Leonard had not had much experience in 
teaching, and her success did not meet the expecta- 
tions of your Committee. A failure in government, 
in this as in most cases, well-nigh resulted in destroy- 
ing the usefulness of the school. 

Having noticed each school in detail, your Commit- 
tee now present the following 

STATISTICS OF THE SCHOOLS. 

Amount of money raised by the town for the support of schools 

during the past year $1200.00. 

Income of Massachusetts School Fund 66.94. 

Amount of money appropriated for schools 1266.94. 

Average appropriation per scholar 3.94. 

Number of different scholars, of all ages, in all the public schools 
in summer 332. 

Number of different scholars, of all ages, in all the public schools 
in winter 369. 

Average attendance in all the public schools in summer 264. 

Average attendance in all the public schools in winter. 289. 

Aggregate of months all the public schools have been kept during 
the year 46mos. 18 J- days. Making an average of nearly og- months 
to each district during the year. 

Average wages per month of male teachers $33.12^. 

Average wages per month of female teachers 22.0 1 T 6 ^. 

To the facts and statistics which have now been 
been presented, your Committee desire to add a few 




11 

REMARK S. 

The importance of our public schools, as the means 
of affording a good education to the children and youth 
of our town, is too obvious, it is believed, to require 
pressing on the attention of an intelligent people. 
And it is certain that, if such schools are the chief 
source of instruction to a large majority of the children 
in town ; no pains should be spared in rendering them 
as effective as possible. And in this work, the entire 
population of the town should unite from feelings of 
duty, honor and patriotism. Here is a field of labor 
for both sexes, and all classes. The town has some- 
thing to do in its corporate capacity, in raising money, 
and electing the necessary officers to carry on the 
schools in a legal and proper manner. The officers, 
when chosen, have important and laborious duties to 
perform in their several spheres. No man should 
suffer himself to be an incumbent of any office, how- 
ever profitless it may be, unless he is willing to dis- 
charge the duties of the office in a considerate and 
faithful manner. 

But when every thing; has been done with the ut- 
most care, and teachers, as well qualified for their pro- 
fession as can be procured, are duly installed in their 
schools ; still much remains for parents to do, to ren- 
der their efforts in the highest degree successful. It 
is not enough that a teacher receives his wages ; he 
needs more—lie deserves more ! He ought to be able 
to feel that he has the good wishes and affectionate 
regards, of all for whom he labors. Children should 
be taught, at home, to respect the wishes, and obey 
the commands of the teacher. 

Parents should see that their children are regular 
and punctual in their attendance at school ; for unless 
they are, no teacher- can instruct them to advantage. 
Irregulaaity of attendance is an actual waste of a por- 
tion of the money provided by the town and state, for 
educational purposes; andis,notunfrequently, a source 
of mortification to the teacher, and dissatisfaction tc 



12 

parents. Blame is often thrown upon teachers, which 
justly belongs to parents ; for, if scholars arc absent 
from school, the teacher cannot be accountable for 
their progress in learning. 

Again, it is highly desirable that parents should fre- 
quently visit the school, as a method of manifesting their 
interest, and encouraging both pupils and teacher. Let 
parents try this, thoroughly, and they will soon perceive, 
by an increase of effort and general improvement in 
the school, that the practice is productive of good. 

In closing, your Committee would remark that, dur- 
ing the past year, the shortness of some of the school 
terms, has been a great misfortune ; for it it is easy to 
perceive that the last month of a good school, is of a 
greater relative value than the first. The brevity of 
the terms here mentioned, has arisen from a want of 
means sufficient to extend them to a greater length ; 
thus showing a necessity for a more liberal appropri- 
ation for the support of schools, than was made last 
year. It is gratifying to know that an increase of the 
appropriation has been voted, for the ensuing year. 
It is hoped that every change in the future, like the 
one here referred to. may be in the right direction. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM READ, ) School 

SAMUEL JONES, I Committee 

WILLARD M. COPELAND, j of Raynham. 

Raynham, April 5th, 1858. 



« ■»■— »- 



A true copy — Attest, 

HENRY II. CRANE, ) Selectmen of 
JOHN D. G. WILLIAMS, ] Raynham. 



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REPUBLICAN PRINTING OFFICE, 
1865. 



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POR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL 1, 1865, 



TAUNTON : 

BEPUBLICAN PRINTING OFFICE. 

1865. 



REPOEl\ 



We shall now, according to usage and as the law requires, 
present some general idea of the state of the schools the past 
year, — what has been done in them, what progress they have 
made, and shall suggest something necessary to their improve- 
ment. We have visited them often, and have almost always 
found iher in fcuiiablf' .-tillness and order giving due atten- 
tion to their studies and showing proper respect to their 
teachers. 

While the far greater portion of the pupils have evidently 
advanced in their learning, others in each school have learned 
but little, having frequently been absent, as the registers 
show ; or their minds have been more on trifling and play 
than on their studies, or their talent, if they have any, has not 
been awakened. 

We have ^or the most part been favored the past year with 
efficient and experienced teachers ; who have not failed to ex- 
ert themselves in preserving order, showing impartiality in 
their instruction, though perhaps taking more pains with the 
dull and delinquent; and like the physician who rejoices in 
seeing his patient recovering, they have shown no small pleas- 
ure when their pupils have well mastered their lessons and 
exhibited a good deportment. The school rooms have been 
kept in proper temperature, have been timely ventilated, the 
floors well swept daily, and habits of neatness and economy 
inculcated. What should we expect but that female teachers 
would excel in observing the rules of taste and good manners 
both by example and precept? The moral training of the 
children has not been neglected. The Bible has been daily 
read as a devotional exercise, and prayer offered, that the 
children might be sensible of their dependence and feel then> 






selves under the eye of Omniscience, for without this no ami 
able character U rightly formed. 

{GOVERNMENT.. 

No real failure has occurred in anv of the schools. In the 
Summer term of No. 6 there was some dissatisfaction in regard 
to some children whose temper probably was not accustomed 
to be subdued, and required firmness <»n the part of the 
teacher. Several who left, the school in consequence had no- 
sufficient cause for it. But a teacher is often blamed for do- 
ing her duty, or what parents themselves could not have done 
as well. If they who know the peculiar temperament of their 
children cannot make them do right, how can they expect a 
teacher, who is a stranger to the in r will be able, at once, to 
control them. 

In School No. 7. some boys of this class, not gentle or gal- 
lant enough to treat an accomplished and amiable teacher with 
respect, were sent out of the school for some days } thus de~ 
priving themselves of the advantages of school, till by a sense 
of shame they might see their error. To expel a boy for 
misconduct seems depriving him of the means of learning good 
conduct. There should be authority somewhere sufficient to 
keep him in school and infuse into him principles of virtue 
and honor. 

In District No. 5, some boys at the commencement of the 
school were obstreperous and unmannerly, by banging on be- 
hind carriages passing, using improper language ; some times 
horses were frightened and missiles thrown ; but all this was 
soon corrected by the. teacher. We by no means object to 
children's sports properly conducted. But bursting out of 
school uproarously, so as to excite in travellers a fear for 
their horses, is to be corrected both by parents and teachers. 
Decency and propriety become children in passing strangers 
in the street. 

Some parents will scold their children more for offending 
against manners than morals. They are mortified at the 
rudeness of their child, while they think his deceiving or utter- 
ing words bordering on profanity is funny. Some small boys 



5 

have been heard to speak profane words at play. They have 
doubtless heard older persons use them, and have thought it 
brave or courageous to imitate them. These are seeds of de- 
pravity, which if not checked in season, will grow and ripen 
into bitter fruits, which will cost their parents much sorrow. 
These evils are becoming extensive, and require the atten- 
tion of all who have the care of children. They must be 
taught early. It is culture that makes the wild plant into a 
culinary root of great value. It is with masses of people as 
it is with individuals. If a school is commenced without 
regard to order, it is difficult afterwards to reduce it to that 
stillness and system which are necessary to progress in study. 
The best governed schools are those which are presided over 
without any parade or show of authority. Setting forth many 
laws and penalties often provokes resistance, and every states- 
man knows that a code of laws that makes large provision for 
the suppression of mobs and insurrections, indirectly opens 
the way for their existence. 

There is much yet to be done by parents and teachers to 
subordinate and refine every generation of children as they 
arise. When we have brought a school under good discipline, 
and its movements are like machinery or military tactics, per- 
haps a few crude ones come in and infect a great number with 
their evil manners,— the teacher finds it up-hill work to quell 
them, and their parents connive at their villainy. 

Most failures in schools are attributable to failure in disci- 
pline. Teachers are not to excuse themselves by saying it 
does not fall within their province to control their children out 
of school. The law makes it their duty to regulate their man- 
ners in the precincts of the school house as well as within it. 
We wish for more vigilance on the part of parents over their 
children's deportment in going to, and from school, when the 
eye of the teacher cannot be over them : — for what shows to 
a passing stranger the civility and refinement of a village more 
than the decent deportment of the children in the street. But 
if they show off their rudeness by hooting at him or hanging 
on to his carriage or throwing stones before his horses, he 
cannot but denounce them as half-civilized, and that their school 



6 

or family at home is working more for stratagems, outbreaks 
and collision, than for civilizaiion and refinement. 

It has been well said that " where school houses end in 
our country there ignorance and rebellion begin," and that 
the common school system carried through, would have saved 
us from a most direful civil war. But to look for such results 
we must see that our schools are of a right character, or they 
will lead some to do more mischief than otherwise they would 
have done. One said, " let me make the songs which the peo- 
ple shall sing, and I will answer for the habits and manners 
they will form.'' Much more true is it that they who preside 
in our schools and imprint their own image and superscrip- 
tion on the minds of children, are answerable for the habits 
and manners of future generations. 

FEMALE TEACHERS. 

An experiment is how being tried by the employment of 
female teachers through the year. We have had no male 
tea. hers the last year, and the year before but one, and yet 
we think the order and discipline have been improving. 
Schools are governed mote by moral principle than they once 
\\ ere ; hence there is less need of flagellations, or physical force. 
If our children can have a sensitive conscience awakened they 
••an easily be taught to avoid the evil and choose the good, 
and we apprehend that this may be effected by female as well 
as by male instruction 

What boy-human nature requires is refinement of manners, 
gentleness, reserve, respect for superiors and proper self re- 
spect. Il is allowed that these virtues which go to form the 
gentleman are more speedily learned of an amiable, accom- 
plished female ; because in her they appear natural and not 
overstrained, and are like the sparkling diamond set in a gold- 
en encasement : — or as a great writer says," are like apples of 
gold in pictures of silver." So much more attracting arc all 
excellences in woman than in man that no nature but that 
which is fiendish can resist them. It is said a lion in seeing 
a woman will not growl so soon as when seeing a man, and 



1 

is more easily subdued by her benignant countenance. We 
thereto} e think it safe to intrust our schools in which are many 
half-grown young men to competent female teachers; — when 
especially there is a power behind the teacher greater than 
the teacher herself. This power intrusted by the town and 
the laws to the School Committee, we intend shall be exer* 
cised, when called for, so that whoever resists the power shall 
be made to feel that he resists the ordinances of the State 
and of God, since " the powers that be are ordained of him. ' 

Many females in late years have hod greater advantages by 
Normal schools and ether institutions than they had twenty 
years ago. That they are as capable as young men to gain 
the knowledge of school studies is admitted. While so many 
young men are called to the war or to enter our manufacto- 
ries with an education half finished, it is fortunate lor us that 
we have so many young ladies capable of taking the manage- 
ment of our schools. Let them have your support by in- 
creased wages, which are now urgently demanded and be sus- 
tained in their authority, and you will see the happy results. 
Some recommend appointing female School Commit; ees. as 
they would have more time to attend to the business. As for 
our young men, we almost despair of their rising to high at* 
tainments in knowledge so as to become teachers. They re- 
mindus of the maiden Atalanta in Greek mythology, who hav- 
ing outstripped several competitors in the race, at length was 
beaten by Meilanion who dropped three golden apples one 
after another, which she, turning aside, stopped to take up, and 
thus lost the race. So our young men are soon turned aside 
by some golden object which has higher attractions than 
knowledge. 

We have been requested to say who of our teachers have 
done the best, that a selection might be made from them to 
teach again ; but we have always avoided making invidious 
comparisons, or pointing out faults that would injure one's 
reputation. But this we can say, that those who have been 
employed several terms have gained our confidence, and the 
others have acquitted themselves well, and we should not hes- 
itate to approve them again. Tt is almost invariably true that 



8 

a good teacher's second year is better for her school than her 
first, for reasons that are too obvious to mention. 

WAGES. 

In the eight Districts of this town the average wages of 
teachers has been about twenty-seven dollars per month, 
making to each teacher for the six months school $162. De- 
ducting from this sum the price of board at three dollars a 
week, amounting to seventy two dollars, leaves her ninety dol- 
lars for the two terms of the year. What a small compensa- 
tion for the arduous labors of the school room for that length 
of time. It is only $3.75 a week. Girls in the weaving or 
spinning rooms of factories receive higher wages. How can 
girls afford to spend two or three years at the Normal school 
or in some Academy in order to teach for no higher pay ? Is 
it the honor of the business that invites them ? We think 
that both honor and justice and the increased expenses of 
living demand a more generous recompense for teachers. 

If male teachers were employed they would require about 
a third more wages, and then our schools would be cut down 
to about five months a year, unless a greater sum is raised by 
the town. 

SCHOOL MONEY. 

Notwithstanding the immense expenses of the war, the 
means of education have been well supplied in the State. In 
the towns and cities the sums raised for the payment of teach- 
ers by voluntary taxation for the year 1863-4 was $1,536,314, 
which is $102,299 in advance of the preceding year. This 
speaks well for the public schools. By estimate the average 
sum for every person between five and fifteen years of age is 
$6.25. This town, though it has involved itself in debt about 
twenty-five thousand dollars in raising soldiers for the army, 
has not diminished its support for schools, nor shortened 
their terms. It raises for each child between the age of five 
and fifteen years $4.59, which is far more than a medium sum 
in the towns of the Commonwealth. Were our eight schools 
reduced to six, how much more economically might the same 



9 

money be expended, and each school might then be kept at 
least seven months in a year. Every teacher and almost ev- 
ary parent knows that two terms in a year of three months 
each are by no means enough for children under fifteen years to 
attend school. During a vacation of three months many a 
child loses more than halt he learned the preceding term. 
Many are taught little or nothing at home, and when they re- 
turn to school after an absence of months, they show the 

backward course they have taken. 

I 

PATRIOTISM. 

Considering patriotism as essential to a goc d citizen, we 
think that the principles of it should be inculcated in our 
schools and at home. It is not enough that children read 
patriotic pieces in their school books; oral instructions from 
their teachers will make a deeper impression. The character 
of the true citizen is early formed. It is in childhood he 
should be taught due respect for civil government and the 
laws which secure to him protection -of life, liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness. Some who were in the schools a few 
years ago are now in the army or navy, dealing heavy blows 
upon the enemies of our institutions. We trust that those in 
a course of training will not be wanting in loyalty, but will 
be ready like their predecessors "to contend earnestly for the 
faith delivered to our Fathers." 

Our chief men have often inculcated the truth that our 
government and free institutions are based on the intelligence 
and morals of the people ; and Judge Story was accustomed 
to say in addressing Grand Juries, that our government is an 
experiment of a people who have undertaken to govern them- 
selves, and if it proves a failure, many generations will pass 
before another people will attempt to renew the experiment. 

GOOD READING. 

We are obliged to make the complaint that we have made 
before, that there is little good reading in several of our 
schools, even among those pupils in whom we should expect 



10 

it. The fact is not from want of voice, or suitable books, but 
for want of drill or sufficient teaching. The reading is indis- 
tinct, rapid or inarticulate, and so confused that a h arer a 
few yards distant would not understand half of it. 

We had a teacher in the summer who had a class of eight 
or ten who at the examination read to the satisfaction and ad- 
miration of the visitors. She had taken nn usual pains with 
them. You would need no book to follow them to know 
what was read. Their reading was distinct, deliberate, not 
with overstrained emphasis, not monotonous, free from man- 
nerism, and showed animation, letting the sound of eaca word 
fall clearly upon the ear of the hearer, especially at the end 
of the sentence. Could we not have such natural, easy read- 
ing in our schools if the proper teaching was given? We 
had thought of taking that class with us from one school to 
another, if practicable, to exhibit to other pupils the kind of 
reading we wish for, that by example from some of their own 
age, as well as by precept from teachers they might know 
what good reading is, for the right instruction can be given 
only by a good reader. 

Prizes of large amount are offered in the Normal schools 
iO those who excel in this branch of learning, which has been 
so much neglected. 

Distinct articulation is the first thing to be attended to ; 
then the pitch of the voice; then the spirit and sentiment of 
the piece that is read, and common sense and natural tact 
must direct the whole performance. We want nothing rhet- 
orical or forced or overstrained, or artificial in our children's 
reading, but a plain and almost familiar utterance of our 
noble English. But instead of this, what do we hear ? A 
measured, monotonous drive of sound, as disagreeable and 
almost as unintelligible as a foreign language. Few teachers 
have considered the requisites of good reading, or if they 
have, they have not acted in view of them, cither for want of 
resolution or patience. What can more offend good taste or 
delicacy of feeling than to hear selections from our best 






11 

writers* and orators dishonored and crippled by being badly 
read ? 

In all our schools we have Webster's Dictionary, which 
gives the definition of every word in our language, but Wor 
cester's is thought to be more full and accurate in giving the 
right pronunciation. But it is not sufficient, that either of 
them should lie on the desk; it should be often consulted. 
Yet what a vast number of words do even the first class 
read in their lessons, the meaning of which is uncertain to 
them. This is one reason why they read so imperfectly. 

PRACTICAL STUDIES. 

We have not a sufficiency in our schools of what may be 
termed practical studies. Boys learn to solve questions in 
the Arithmetic under the higher rules while they have little 
knowledge of the rules applicable to the common business of 
life. How few, though it is said they have been through the 
Arithmetic, know how to measure a load of wood, whatever 
may be its dimensions, or to measure boards, plank or joist, 
or find the solid contents of a stick of timber, or measure a 
triangular or square field ; or know how to keep accounts in 
a proper manner. They have gone over the rules in Green- 
leaf, but let them have a new question such as often occurs in 
business and they are nonplused. Let teachers endeavor to 
supply this defect, that when one leaves the school he may 
know how to apply his Arithmetic to some advantage and not 
be mortified in seeing an unlettered man measure lumber, or 
cast interest with more facility than he can. The books are 
designed to be practical, but the pupil fails to see the applica- 
tion. He can work Duodecimals from the book with the 
author's directions, but when abroad and without book he is 
uncertain and perplexed. That is knowledge which one can 
command at any time for his own and others' advantage. The 
physician studies remedies from books for certain diseases, 
but if he cannot recollect aud apply them to the disease he is 
treating, his patient suffers and perhaps dies through his ig= 



12 

no ranee. So it is win n school learning fails one in the busi- 
ness of life. 

SINGING. 

Iii almoM all our schools there, lias I tin a singing class 
who have once a clay sung some suitable hymn led by the 
teacher. This practice now so common, though it would 
have been quite erratic forty years ago, has its numerous ben- 
efits. It brings the children into a better state of mind, by 
removing bitterness of temper, and introducing cheerfulness 
and elevated sentiments alter wearisome study and confine- 
ment. Hence it has become very obvious to teachers, that as- 
in nature some of the grandest effeets are produced from 
latent and simple causes, so in a school, simply singing a suit- 
able hymn, the rule and order of the school are more easily- 
sustained. Just as it was when an Eastern king was haunted 
by an evil spirit, that is, a vindictive temper, and his minstrel 
David played in his presence on a harp, or performed an ora- 
torio, the evil spirit departed from the king, and then it was, 
that " mercy became the monarch better than his crown." So 
it is very likely to be in a group of children. If they delight 
to sing together, they are not so likely to indulge in revenge 
or malevolence, or plot mischief or stratagems. 

Proverbs and patriotic songs have contributed to the for- 
mation of national character, and manners. A popular ballad 
at a certain period in England, is said to have changed the 
political sentiments of the whole nation. Every one knows 
how much temperance songs in our day have contributed to 
diffuse the principles of temperance through the community. 
It is stated in history that the chorals of Luther did as much 
for the Reformation as his bold and vehement preaching did. 
What is there so stirring to an army going into battle as the 
spirited charge of a few words from their leader, and the pa- 
triotic songs then on their lips ? If our children are taught 
some national airs, they may, in after life, like the Swiss in 
foreign lands, shed tears for their country in hearing them 
sung. 






13 



COMPOSITION. 



In some of the schools the larger scholars have practiced 
writing compositions on familiar and interesting subjects. A 
selection of these has usually been read at the examination 
greatly to the satisfaction of your committee. This exercise 
we strongly recommend, because it teaches the pupil to think, 
write and talk correctly. When one undertakes to put his 
thoughts upon paper, he revolves them in his mind, studies the 
subject he is writing upon, and endeavors to express himself 
in proper language. In doing this he will consider the rules 
of grammar, of punctuation and correct spelling. Hence a 
variety of the branches is brought into the exercise, and what 
school study is there which so well shows one's scholarship, 
or is so well calculated to improve his genius and bring out 
real knowledge. Letter writing is miserably done by many 
who have gone through the schools, not only as to penman- 
ship, spelling and punctuation, but as to form and style,, 
Ought not this deficiency to be remedied at school? Who is 
fitted for transacting business, or writing letters, unless he can 
write or speak English correctly? It has afforded us much 
pleasure to see with what propriety some of our young Miss- 
es, and in one or two instances of eight years of age, have 
written and read their themes at examination. 

PRUDENTIAL COMMITTEES. 

The duties devolving on the Prudential Committee are not 
numerous, but very essential to the interests of the school* 
They have the charge of the school house, are required to 
keep it in good repair, not out of the school money, but from 
means supplied by the District. They may however employ 
a boy and pay him from the school money to build a fire. 
The Prudential Committee in some few instances have omit- 
ted some things which should have been done : for instance, 
letting an out-building very necessary to the school lie in a 
horizontal position, thrown down by the wind or other means, 
and leaving a hole large enough for a boy to crawl through 



14 

fn the partition between the entry and school r v om; and in 
one school a yard of plastering off and falling from the ceiling, 
endangering one's head. We hold that neatness and tidiness 
in buildings and fences should be inculcated on children. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

E. Sanford, ) q , . 

Geo. G. Pebkiks. <„ &cho ,°' 

Committee. 



15 



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REPORT 




OF THE 



School (ftommiiUt 



OF THE 



TOWN OF RAYNHAM 



For the Year ending April 1st 1866 




TAUNTON 

C A HACK & SON PRINTERS 
1866 




OF THE 



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'N OF RAYNHAM 



For the I ear ending April 1st 1866 



TAUNTON 

C A HACK & SON PRINTERS 

1866 



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EPO.RT. 



By the General Statutes of the Commonwealth, it is 
required that the School Committee shall annually make 
a detailed report of the condition of the several public 
schools, which report shall contain such statements and 
suggestions in relation to the schools as the committee 
shall judge to be necessary, and proper to promote the in- 
terest thereof. 

The School Committee of Raynham in compliance with 
the duty imposed upon them, respectfully submit the fol- 
lowing report. 

The past year in most of our schools has been one 
of progress, in some cases of very marked and grati- 
fying progress in the various branches of study. In all 
the districts the teachers have earnestly striven to do their 
duty to the pupils, and the town, and if any have not 
succeeded to the full extent of their desires, and that of 
the committee, the fault of partial, or serious failure is by 
no means to be charged to the teacher alone. In some 
cases very serious obstacles have had to be met and strug- 
gled with, — obstacles which but few teachers could over- 
come. Your Committee will allude to some of these fun- 
damental hindrances before closing their report. It gives 
your committee great pleasure to state that the last exam- 
inations just now closed, were in the majority of cases a de- 
cided advance upon any we have witnessed for some 



time past, evincing able, faithful, unwearied, and successful 
effort on the part of the teachers, and a highly to be com- 
mended diligence, on the part of the scholars. Though 
much progress has been made in some quarters, there rem- 
ains still a very broad margin for improvment, ere we can 
congratulate ourselves upon possessing model schools; 
but we are sure this ground can be attained in Raynham 
as well as elsewhere if all those upon whom the responsi- 
bility rests will but duly consider the matter, and work 
harmoniously and perseveringly together. The school 
committee, prudential committee, parents, and teachers 
should be a unit in this great and fundamental work, 
which underlies the highest good of the youth and chil- 
dren of the town, state and nation. But these elements 
are not harmoniously combined here, and perhaps it is a 
consummation not to be fully realized anywhere at pres- 
ent ; but where it shall be, either in this town or any other, 
we shall have results of the most gratifying nature. Such 
a union every good citizen, every philanthropic, patriot- 
ic and christian heart will desire with all desire, and la- 
bour thoroughly to promote. Union here will be strength, 
and that strength will be so applied as to ensure complete 
success. In district No. i we have had a partial exem- 
plification of the truth of these remarks, and also in dis- 
trict No. 3. These schools, under their excellent, accom- 
plished, and indefatigable teachers, Miss Elvira Wood, 
and Miss Marietta A. Skinner, in union with the efforts 
of parents and the school committee, have steadily im- 
proved, each term witnessing an advance upon the for- 
mer, until they now rank among our best schools. Here 
too we have realized the benefit of permanency in regard 
to teachers. They have not been changed at the close 
of every term, but these districts have had the good judg- 



ment when they have secured a good teacher to hold on 
to her as long, as possible, and thus they have secured a 
steady advance. But universally where the system of 
changing the teacher at the close of each term, to gratify 
the whims, caprices, and prejudices of one or two very 
unreasonable persons, has prevailed, there the school and 
the town have suffered, and money has been spent to but 
little advantage comparatively — the due equivalent is not 
returned in the solid improvement of every parent's child. 
One of the greatest losses to a town which your commit- 
tee can contemplate, is the removal from it of accomplish- 
ed and successful teachers, like those above referred to. 
And it is with sorrow that they are called to contemplate 
their removal from our midst. They will leave us with 
the hearty regrets of many, with the unqualified appro- 
bation of your committee, and with the consciousness 
that they "fought a good fight," and won the victory. 
May the Great Teacher ever be with them, and lead them 
into the green pastures of his truth, and feed them with 
the hidden manna." While some of our schools have 
proved the advantage of the continuance of good teach- 
ers, others have demonstrated the ruinous policy of fre- 
quent removals. It is not in the power of even a good 
teacher to accomplish much for a school in a single term. 
It takes the whole of that time for the teacher to get ac- 
quainted with the school, and to bring its various schol- 
ars into a proper classification, and for the scholars to get 
acquainted with her, and used to her methods. The sec- 
ond term is worth twice the first, and the third, and 
fourth, and so on, are ever increasing in value! But 
change your teachers each term, and it is almost impos- 
sible for that school to make a steady progress, and arrive 
at a high grade,-— to fulfill the just expectations of the 



6 

parents and to accomplish at all the end aimed at by an 
intelligent and competent school and prudential commit- 
tee. 

District No. 8 has suffered from the too frequent 
change of teachers above alluded to, but under the effi- 
cient teaching and discipline of its present teacher, it has 
in part retrieved its lost position. 

District No. 2 has passed through a series of embar- 
rassments which almost any teacher would find it difficult 
to surmount in a single term. This school has had three 
different teachers in three successive terms, and, as we 
might suppose, the discipline and progress of the school 
has greatly suffered. There has also been a sad want of 
parental co-operation and sympathy with the teacher. 
The firing apparatus has been in a sad condition so that 
the pupils have been subjected to both cold and smoke, 
and to an atmosphere in which no child could efficiently 
study, or teacher teach. We do not censure the teacher 
for these things, but have a profound sympathy for one 
thus circumstanced. For a variety of reasons, satisfacto- 
ry to the committee, this school was closed on Friday, 
Jan. 19th. It was re-opened after a week's intermission 
by the earnest request of a portion of the parents, and 
the pledge that they would sustain the teacher. We are 
happy to say that the latter part of the term has been a 
decided improvement upon the former portion. The 
register tells the story in part. 

District No. 4. — This school too has suffered from a 
too frequent change of teachers, but through the past term 
has been taught by an accomplished teacher. One thing- 
wanting in this school however, as well as in some others, 



has been a manifest lack of energy and decision. We 
hope to see these schools take a high rank yet. 

District No. 5. — This district has also been depreci- 
ated from the too frequent change of teachers, but it has 
possessed the advantage of having had very efficient and 
successful teachers, and the extensive sympathy and co- 
operation of the parents of the pupils. The term just 
closed has evinced progress very gratifying in almost all 
the branches of study, and with the same teacher for oth- 
er terms, we doubt not it will advance to a much higher 
grade. 

District No. 7.- — This is the largest school in town, 
and the most poorly accomodated with a school-house 
and other appliances to assist a teacher with such a charge. 
We fear too, there has been but little cordial co-operation 
on the part of parents. The school has, however, made 
some progress under great disadvantage. When the dis- 
trict shall provide a suitable school building and other 
necessary appliances for a successful school, their children 
will reap abundant advantages. 

District No. 6, — -We are gratified to state that there 
has been a steady progress in this school, and that, but 
for the indifference of parents it might have attained a 
much higher rank. In scarcely any school in town has 
there been such a lamentable want in this connection as 
in this. We hope parents in this district will seriously 
ponder this matter, and be determined to sustain nobly 
their teacher, and take a just pride in having their school 
raised to a high rank. It can be done, — there is all the 
material for it in the district. Let all the districts be de- 
termined, be fully determined to begin a new and aspir- 



ing era with the next term, and then we are assured no 
district will spend its money and labor for that which 
satisfieth not, but will reap an abundant harvest from the 
seed sown. 

REMARKS, SUGGESTIONS, &c. 

It would be impossible for your committee to impress 
upon the minds of parents too deep a sense of their re- 
sponsibility in connection with our schools. If it be im- 
portant to the success of a school that we should have a 
live and thoroughly accomplished and qualified teacher, 
and live scholars who will work with all their might, be- 
ing animated and inspired by the rare qualities of their 
teacher, it is no less important to a good school,that it should 
have the hearty co-operation of the parents. The teach- 
er should be sustained by every parent, in her plans, dis- 
cipline and endeavors, unless they are palpably wrong. 
They should be forbearing and patient, slow to judge and 
condemn a teacher until they have ascertained the facts 
in the case. Parental intermeddling and obtrusive inter- 
ference has ruined hundreds of schools. The position of 
a teacher is one which involves great responsibilities, is 
beset with many perplexities, is surrounded with great 
obstacles, and is, for a great variety of reasons, one of the 
most difficult in which to give universal satisfaction; there- 
fore parents should give teachers their sympathy and cor- 
dial support; should not hastily condemn them and speak 
ill of them in the presence of their children. Kind 
words and words of sympathy, spoken at home, will take 
a strong hold upon the children's hearts. A just recip- 
rocation on the part of parents, of a teacher's efforts, 
will not only enhearten a good and faithful teacher, but 



9 

will eventuate in the greatest advantage of the children. 
From the family are the issues of all good or evil, success 
or defeat. The maintenance of good family government 
at home will ensure good scholars at school. But where 
the children govern at home they will be the most insub- 
ordinate and disorderly pupils in school, and the parents 
who maintain no family government w T ill be the most ca- 
pricious and unreasonable in their treatment and judg- 
ment of a teacher. It has been justly said "that a large 
proportion of the punishments inflicted on children at 
school would justly fall upon the parents, whose neglect, 
or ignorance of what constitutes a parent's duty, has en- 
tailed upon the child perverse and disrespectful habits. 
Says Gen. N. P. Banks, — "Above all, and more impor- 
tant than all, are the true principles of home government, 
the foundation of all government, without which there is 
no stability, nor material wealth, nor permanent prosperi- 
ty." Another eminent writer has said, — "parents are 
the protectors of families and states ; of state and family 
interests largely considered and beautifully combined.'' 
Parents who acknowledge the truth of these sentiments 
and act harmoniously, reap a sure and abundant reward in 
the progress in knowledge, piety, and good conduct of 
their children. " Home is earth's first greatest school." 
It does, or leaves undone, more than all other schools to 
make the child an angel or a demon. 

But how can parents co-operate and render efficient the 
labor of their teacher for their children ? 

ist, Govern your child well at home. Teach him 
the principles of obedience; the habit of bowing to duty; 
of subjecting his will to the authority of the proper guide; 
of yielding his heart up to the eternal, unchangeable rule 



10 

of right. This is the germ of all future good, — the first 
lesson in obedience to God. 

2d, Train your child so as to ensure health, activity 
and vigor of body ; fill his mind with virtuous principles; 
above all subject him to good habits. 

3d, Be deeply solicitous that your child should be well 
instructed at school ; that he possesses the general knowl- 
edge which is necessary to enable him to discharge the 
duties which rest upon him as a member of society ; that 
he possesses that particular knowledge which may fit him 
to pursue his profession in life with success ; and that intel- 
lectual discipline which results in what is called a well 
regulated mind. 

4th, Let it be a fixed principle with you that your child 
shall be punctual and constant at school. The evils of 
the opposite cannot be described. 

5th, Cultivate the most friendly feelings towards, and 
intercourse with the teacher of your beloved children ; 
and at home, honor the teacher, and bring your children 
to do the same, by all your words and actions in reler- 
ence to her in their presence and hearing. 

6th, Sustain the teacher s authority. This every teach- 
er has a right to demand and expect. If you do not do 
this then you have no ground for complaint, that she does 
not maintain authority, or govern her school well. 

7th, Visit your school often, take your work with you 
and spend a few hours frequently where your chil- 
dren are being trained. Our school registers tell a sad 
tale in this respect. Never, if possible, be absent from 
the examinations. 



11 

8th, Be exceedingly cautious lest through parental par- 
tiality, you condemn the teacher upon the complaints of 
your children, of harshness, partiality, or ill-treatment 

Ever bear in mind the general rule, that the presump- 
tion is, the teacher is right, and the pupil is wrong, or at 
any rate, that the child has been guilty of some misde- 
meanor, or fault. 

9th. Study to appreciate the great advantages which 
our common schools afford your children. Natural af- 
fection, humanity, patriotism, and the entire current of di- 
vine teaching, cry out against, and denounce the outrage 
of leaving children without that knowledge, that intellec- 
tual and moral training which can alone fit them for the 
proper conduct of life. 

10th. Do all in your power to encourage your child- 
ren in their studies. Inquire of them frequently how they 
are getting along, and ascertain what progress they are 
making. Inquire of the teacher also. Kind words to 
the teacher will not be amiss at times. 

Again, your committee would recommend the greatest 
care in the selection of teachers. This is emphatic- 
ally one of the most responsible and important duties 
connected with our school system. And yet where the 
district system prevails, in nine cases out of ten, it is put 
into the hands of persons who are either indifferent, or 
totally disqualified, and the consequence is that in many 
cases disqualified teachers are presented to the school 
committee for approbation, and they must be approbated 
or the committee are liable to every charge which a dis- 
appointed and incensed prudential committee man can 
invent. And if the teacher presented is permitted to 
commence the school, but it is found for some reasons she 



12 

cannot successfully teach, or govern the school, she must 
not be removed by the committee, but suffered to go on, 
and teach at the will of the prudential committee man. 
Now it is hard to make the school committee responsible 
for the welfare of the schools under such a system of 
things as this. Many prudential committee men possess 
not the first qualification for the responsible and funda- 
mental work of selecting teachers ; they are not chosen 
with respect to their qualifications, and hence we can see 
how poor teachers are so apt to get employment. Many 
of the prudential committee men in our towns seldom 
visit a school during the term of office. With our knowl- 
edge and experience, it is clear to us that those who su- 
perintend and direct the schools and are responsible for 
their success, — who know the teachers, and accept or 
reject them, should also employ them. 

Your committee would say a few words relative to the 
moral training received in common schools. 

It has been truly said by an eminent writer " that in 
our attempts to legislate all sectarianism out of our 
schools, we have legislated all religion out of them." 
We have given too much reason for the taunt of the 
Pope of Rome, and his clergy, viz : — that our schools are 
godless schools. The State of Massachusetts has not 
been delinquent in the matter however. In her revised 
statutes she has reiterated and endorsed a good old stat- 
ute of the ancient puritan commonwealth, making it an 
imperative duty of the teachers, on all suitable occasions, 
to inculcate "the principles of piety and justice, and a sacred 
regard to truth ; love of their country, humanity and uni- 
versal benevolence; sobriety, industry and frugality ; chas- 
tity, moderation and temperance ; and those other virtues 



13 

which are the ornament of human society, and the basis 
upon which a republican constitution is founded; and it 
shall be the duty of such instructors to endeavor to lead 
their pupils, as their ages and capacities will admit, into 
a clear understanding of the tendency of the above nam- 
ed virtues to preserve and perfect a republican constitu- 
tion, and secure the blessings of liberty as well as pro- 
mote their future happiness ; and also to point out to 
them the evil tendnecy of the opposite vices." Thus our 
beloved and honored old commonwealth in part provides. 
The daily reading of the Scriptures and the offering of the 
Lord's prayer, or some other, as by law required also in 
our school, will accomplish but little alone to secure the 
sublime purposes contemplated by our benevolent state 
legislation. Avoiding all mere sectarian teaching 
(which is contrary to law,) our children in all our schools 
should be assiduously trained into the possession of a deep 
and realizing sense of their moral obligations, — their ob- 
ligation to be prompt, punctual, and constant in their at- 
tendance, correct in deportment, truthful, kind, forbearing 
toward each other, — examples of justice and injustice, be- 
nevolence and hatred, love and selfishness, forgiveness, 
mercy, discretion, pity and patience, cheerfulness, fidelity, 
magnanimity, prudence, courage, self-government, patri- 
otism, perseverance, industry, order and neatness, and the 
duties of citizenship, and such like, should be presented 
to their minds intelligibly for their imitation or avoidance. 
Acts fundamentally wrong should never be treated as 
simply transgressions of laws instituted for convenience 
and decorum ; but the higher, the moral nature of the 
child should be appealed to, and the conviction secured 
that all actions are subject to the inspection and judge- 



14 

ment of a higher power. Says Horace Mann, fist An, 
Report Board of Education,) — "Teachers address them- 
selves to the culture of the intellect mainly. The £ict 
that children have moral, natural and social affections, 
then in the most rapid state of development, is scarcely 
recognized. One page of the daily manual teaches the 
power of commas ; another the spelling of words ; an- 
other the rules of cadence and emphasis ; but the pages 
are missing which teach the laws of forbearance under 
injury, of sympathy with misfortune, of impartiality in our 
judgments of men, of love and fidelity to truth ; of the 
everduring relations of men, in domestic life, in the 
organized government, and of stranger to stranger. How 
can it be expected that such cultivation will scatter seeds 
so that, in the language of Scripture, "instead of the thorn 
shall come tip the fir tree^ and instead of the brier shall 
come up the myrtle tree}" If such be the general condi- 
tion of the schools, is it a matter of surprise that we see 
lads and young men thickly springing up in the midst of 
us, who startle at the mispronunciation of a word, as though 
they were personally injured, but can hear volleys of pro- 
fanity unmoved, who put on arrogant airs of superior 
breeding, or sneer with contempt at cases of false spell- 
ing or grammar, but can witness spectacles of drunken- 
ness in the street with entire composure ? Such eleva- 
tion of the subordinate, such casting down of the su- 
preme, in the education of children is incompatible with 
all that is worthy to be called the prosperity of their man- 
hood. The moral universe is constructed on principles 
not admissive of welfare under such an administration of 
its laws. In such early habits there is a gravitation and 
proclivity to ultimate downfall and ruin. If persevered 
in, the consummation of a peoples destiny may be still a 



15 

question of time, but it ceases to be one of certainty. 
To avert the catastrophe we must look to a change in our 
own measures, not to a repeal or suspension of the ordi- 
nances of nature. These, as they were originally framed 
in wisdom, need no amendment. Whoever wishes for a 
change in effects, without a corresponding change in 
causes, wishes for a violation of nature's laws. He pro- 
poses as a remedy for the folly of men, an abrogation of 
the wisdom of God in providence." We can never make 
our schools what they are capable of being, and ought to 
be, until the statute laws of the commonweath having ref- 
erence to the moral discipline and government of the 
same, are more faithfully, and wisely executed. Our 
teachers may have much learning, the most desirable 
personal appearance, a mild, gentle and amiable disposi- 
tion, "so amiable and gentle that they may smile, and 
smile and be insulted" to their face daily. It may be very 
pretty to talk of "those plastic natures which yield like 
wax to the impress of soft persuasion". But every judi- 
cious parent and teacher knows that foolishness is bound 
up in the heart of a child, and (sometimes) needs the 
rod of correction to drive it far from him." Children 
must learn that there is a power enthroned in their teach- 
er which they are bound to respect. There must be the 
application of law to the mind, and the conscience. 
And law is, "that rational thing by which a free agent is 
bound to regulate his actions," whether the law be human 
or divine. The fundamental idea of rightful authority, 
and implicit obedience must be taught and enforced in 
our schools. Never was there a period in the history of 
our State, and of our community when our school chil- 
dren and youth had greater need to understand, "that al- 



16 

most obsolete imperative, obey.*' Every school should 
be governed by a few simple and clearly defined laws, 
but fixed, and inflexible, and every infringment properly 
punished. That parent, or teacher has performed a sub- 
lime work and well entitled himself a great benefactor of 
his age, who has brought the immortal minds subject to 
his charge into cordial subordination to law, human or 
divine. It is beautiful by human science to prepare the 
mind for usefulness on earth ; it is sublime and godlike. 
by lessons of divine truth, to prepare the enfranchised 
soul for the enjoyment of eternal happiness in the bosom 
of its Father, and its God. But these two things should 
never be separated. Both the intellectual and moral na- 
ture of man must be educated together bv all the means. 
and appliances with which we are furnished as parents, 
and teachers. And let us never forget that the most ef- 
ficient modes of impressing a child with the importance 
of any thing is. for a parent, or teacher to let him distinct- 
ly see, by his own looks, words, and conduct, that he sets 
a high value upon it. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WM. J. BREED, I 

SAMUEL JONES, ) n 

^ ^ r^^„r\.^ ( Committee. 

E. B. TOWNE. \ 



17 



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